2016考研英语:考研必背的基础语法知识点

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第十六讲 简单句、并列句和复合句

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一。考试大纲供给

  语法知识点1

考查大纲要求考生能正确推断句子的类别、深入分析句子结构、结合语境和句意接纳适用的总是词语、判别主语和从句的正确语序、妥善选取主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

  1.as…as.。。教导的可比级:(1)“as +形容词或副词原级+
as+被比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you.
他像您同样学习努力。

二。命题导向

  (2)在否定句或难点句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as
fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高等高校统招考试对简易句、并列句和复合句的考查首要不外乎:句子的结构、连词的拈轻怕重、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习贯用语和非常规的句式应用。

  2.only指导的倒装句型:only +状语
(或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life. 
独有努力、正直,一人在生活中技巧成功。 

1.差不离句、并列句和复合句

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to
work out the problem.  唯有那位女子知道什么样解那道题。

① 句子种类二种分类法

  3.wish引导的虚构语气:wish
前面包车型大巴从句,当代表与真情相反的情状,或代表以往不太也许落成的愿望时,其宾语从句的动词情势为: 

根据句子的用途,立陶宛(Lithuania)语的句子可分:陈诉句(料定、否定)、疑问句(日常、特殊、选用、反意)、祈使句、惊叹句等多种。

  ⑴代表对现市价况的虚构:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be
的千古式用were.   

依照句子的结构可分:轻便句并列句和复合句三种。

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.   
笔者希望理解那些主题材料的答案。(可惜不清楚。) 

大致句只有一个主语或并列主语和三个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and,
but,
or,so等)或分行(;)把多少个或五个以上的简练句连在一齐构成。复合句:含有三个或三个上述从句的语句。复合句富含:状语从句\名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等二种。

  ⑵表示对过去事态的设想:从句动词用had +过去分词。 

② 并排句的归类

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time. 
小编后悔不应该浪费这么多时间。( 实际三月经浪费掉了。) 

并重句指把四个一律重要的句子连接在一齐,句子之间常用and, not only…but
also…, neither…nor…, then等并列连词连接。

  ⑶代表对未来的莫明其妙意愿:谓语动词格局为“would/ should/ could/ might
+动词原形”。在这里种情况下,主句的主语与从句的主语不可能长期以来,因为主句的主语所企盼的从句动作能或无法贯彻,决议于从句主语的姿态或希望(非动作名词除却)
。 

意味着选择事关常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能止住。 

意味着转会关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用
would,能够象征诉求,平时意味着说话人的痛楚或缺憾。

澳门新葡8455最新网站,意味着因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  作者盼望您安然一些。 

2.状语从句:

  4.it格局宾语:和it 作方式主语一样,  大家常用it 来作方式宾语,
把真的的宾语从句放在句末, 这种状态进一步现身在带复合宾语的句子中。

(1)状语从句的分类

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in.
他申明她不会投降。 

状语从句常常修饰主句的动词或任何句子,由从属连词携带,从属连词在从句中不担任句子成分。依据状语从句所表明的两样含义和效果与利益,可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目标、结果、迁就、比较、方式等状语从句。

  5.The+比较级,the+比较级  表示“越….。。越….。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的辞藻

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will
become。咱们越惊惶困难,困难就能够变得越强盛。

日子状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as,
hardly/ scarcely…when…, no sooner…than.。.一……就……,while, till,
until, since, once。名词词组the first time第三遍,last
time最终叁回,every/each time每趟,the next time下一次,the next
day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant
一……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

  语法知识点2

案由状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

  1. 宾语从句:平时难题句做宾语,引进if或whether

地址状语从句:where,wherever(无论这里)。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

拗可是状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though,
although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however,
wherever, whenever等。

  2. 原因状语从句:since教导的

标准状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(固然;只要),in case (万一);
on condition that(假设), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

目标状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely…when。.

相比状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……)
带领。

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

艺术状语从句:as(正如;依据),as if/as though (好像)指引。

  4. If虚构条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以致于)。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could +动原
跟过去事实相反 had+done would/should/might/could+have done
跟将来事实相反 should+动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could +动原

(3)从句中的语序

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词前面,作介词的宾语。

复合句中平常采纳陈述语序。然而,在上边包车型地铁二种景况下,状语从句多利用倒装语序:

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in
Shanghai。

①当连词as,
though连接妥协状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词常常置于句首,构成都部队分倒装语序。比方:

  6.状语从句轻松(分词作者状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语一致,状从简单选择分词作者状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as
John。

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because
we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn’t get the door open。

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的五个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such…that.。.结果状语从句中,so+形容词/副词或such+名词置于句首时,主句选拔部分倒装语序。比如:

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 +sb
表示“后面一个景况适用于子孙后代”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new
branches elsewhere.

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

  3.定语从句 who指点的限定性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no
sooner置于句首时,第两个分句采取局地倒装语序,即把第贰个分句用汇报语序。比如:

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English
?你还记得教大家希腊语的可怜女孩吧?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一齐教导迁就状语从句,句子选择陈说语序。比如:

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to
rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my
attention on study this week。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will
continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the
+相比较级the+相比级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子照旧使用陈诉语序。比如:Education
is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you
are。

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 表示 “既然”。与 since
的区别之处在于,now that
引出的总得是三个新出现的实际或气象,假诺仍旧依旧,和过去相比较并不曾成形,则不用
now that 教导。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the
new task at
once。既然大家把持有资料都计划好了,大家理应霎时起首那项新的做事。

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态日常固守以下的规律:

  7. 原因状从:for的用法。由because
带领的从句倘若放在句末,且前边有逗号,则足以用并列连词 for
来顶替。但一旦不是表明直接原因,而是三种景观再说测度,就只可以用 for
。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill.
他后天没来,因为她病倒了。

①表示“同临时候”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while
等连接的年月状语从句,主句和从句时态基本一致。例如:As time passed,
things seemed to get worse。

  8. 原因状从:as 的用法。例句:The 新嘉坡共和国 passengers begin to
decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。


表示“现在”意义的原则、时间和妥胁状语从句中多用通常现在时,而主句用经常以往时,被叫作“主将从现”。举个例子:Tomwon’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will
be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:


since教导的流年状语从句多用常常过去时,而带有since从句的主句平时用现时做到时。举例:I
haven’t met her since I left university。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes
competition. 合营化的优点在于能推动相互竞争。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than…中,第一个分句中过去产生时,第二个分句用平日过去时。举个例子:She
had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

  10. 不定式:不定式做目标状语。例句:We get up very early to catch
the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though
指引的状语从句中,假诺表示一种与事实相反夸张,从句多用经常过去时或过去完成时。比如:She
stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

  小说来源:跨考教育[微博]

(5)状语从句的轻巧

当从句的主语与主句的主语同样有的时候间,被动结构的状语从句,可归纳与主句同样的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动协会的状语从句,可归纳与主句同样的主语和助动词,保留连词+以后分词。举个例子:We
all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get
worse。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

(6)状语从句被用来重申组织中

状语从句作为被强调有个别用以重申组织时,一律用It is/was
…that…,不能够用when代替that。句子用陈说语序。注意:当重申Not until
+时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再选拔倒装语序。比方:It was not until
the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

  1. 名词性从句

(1)名词性从句分类:

服从在句中的功用,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句各样。

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担负成分,有的时候可被总结;表示“是不是”用whether,唯有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if取代。Whether和if在从句中不担负成分。借使从句贫乏主语、表语、宾语、或定语等语句成分,用连续代词what,
whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose,
which;假如从句贫乏状语,用延续副词when, where, how, why。

鉴于三番五次代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因此从句中谓语不用难题语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句当做句子成分,而接连几天词whether
和if(是或不是),在从句中不辜负责句子成分,只起连年效用。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

① 在偏下三种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”,
should可回顾。

(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。常见的形容词有important, necessary, natural,
funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人惊讶的)等。

(2) It is +名词+that…句型。常见的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion,
proposal(建议,建议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

(3) It is+动词的过去分词+ that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose,
request, suggest, demand, require等。

②在insist(百折不挠), urge (督促), order(命令), command(命令),
suggest(提议),advise(提议),recommend(建议,推荐),
request(乞请,要求),
demand(必要),require(供给,要求)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,
should可粗略。

③ 在包含advice, order, demand, proposal(建议), requirement,
suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可总结。

④在一些表示好奇、意志力等心情色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”或“should
+have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。比如:

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

  1. 定语从句

(1)定语从句的分类

定语从句分为限制性定语从句非限制性定语从句三种。限制性定语从句对先行词起修饰和限制作而成效,而非限制性定语从句对先行词起互补和解释表明效果与利益。平时限制性定语从句与先行词之间未有逗号,而非限制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔断。

(2)定语从句的涉嫌代词和关联副词

定语从句通常由关系代词和关联副词指导。关系代词有:who, whom, whose,
which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where,
why。关系代词和事关副词必得放在从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连连先行词和从句的意义,同一时候在从句中又担当句子成分。

(3)关系代词和涉及副词的用法:

①超越行词为人时用who
作主语,whom作宾语;②超越行词为物或任何句申时用which,可作主语或宾语;③事先词为人、物时用that
,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤
关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地方,在定语从句中作地方状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

(4)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的分别

①限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系紧凑,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,以至不合逻辑。举个例子:I
was the only person in our office who was
invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完整)


非限制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不细致,去掉定从句,意思照旧安然依然。方式上用逗号隔绝,不能that用教导。比如:His
movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his
wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意思仍完整)

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的多少个难题

①用that而不用 which的意况:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing,
much…;先行词有参天级修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very,
any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。比方:There is nothing that can
prevent him from doing it。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

② 用which而不用
that的情状:引导非限制性定语从句;指代整个主句的意味;用于介词 的前面+
关系代词。举个例子:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be
poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world,
there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an
example。

③ 关系代词as的用法

a. 当现行反革命词为 the same
+名词,such+名词时,要用关系代词as指引定语从句。比如:

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

b.
as可代替主句的从头到尾的经过,指点的非限制性定语从句既可放在主句在此之前,也可放在主句之后。常用来下列句型:as
is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all
know, as I expect 等。比如: He got the first place again in this
mid-term examination, as we expected。

c. as 引导非限制性定语从句时与which的分别

当主句和从句语义一致时,用as携带;反之,用which来指导迷津非限制性定语从句;当非限拟订语从句为否定意义时,常用which指引。举个例子:

He made a long speech, as we expected。

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

④涉嫌代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数照旧用复数应由先行词决定。比方:

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the
morning。

⑤ 指导定语从句的关联副词临时能够用“介词 + which”来代替。例如:

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was
founded。

⑥在”介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词只好用which和whom,且不能够轻松;假如介词在句末,关系代词可用which,
that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可粗略。举例:

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be
friendly。

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